Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?
In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs) represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.
Alusi, A., Eccles, R. G., Edmondson, A. C., & Zuzul, T. (2011). “Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron or the Shape of the Future?” (Working Paper 11-062), Harvard Business School – Boston.
Angel, S., Parent, J., Civco, D.L., Blei, A., Potere, D. (2011). “The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000 – 2050”, Progress in Planning, 75: 53-107.
Becker, J. (2004). “Making Sustainable Development Evaluations Work”, Sustainable Development, Vol. 12: 200-211.
Berke, P. R. (2002). “Does Sustainable Development Offer a New Direction for Planning? Challenges for the Twenty-First Century”, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 17: 21-36.
Bossel, H. (1999). Indicators for Sustainable Development: Theory, Method, Applications. A Report for the Balaton Group. Winninpeg, International Institute for Sustainable Development - Manitoba (Canada).
Brugmann, J. (1997). “Is There a Method in Our Measurement? The Use of Indicators in Local Sustainable Development Planning”, Local Environment, Vol. 2, n. 1, 59-72.
Cohen, B. (2006). “Urbanization in Developing Countries: Current Trends, Future Projections, and Key Challenges for Sustainability”, Technology and Society, Vol. 28: 63-80.
Cooper, R., Evans, G., & Boyko, C. (2009). Designing Sustainable Cities, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd - Oxford.
Craglia, M., Leontidou, L., Nuvolati, G., Schweikart, J. (2004). “Towards the development of quality of life indicators in the 'digital' city”, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 31, n. 1: 51-64.
Dixon, J., & Fallon, L. A. (1989). The concept of sustainability: origins, extensions and usefulness for policy, World Bank, Environment Division Working Paper No. 1 - Washington.
Deakin, M., & Al Waer, H. (2011). “From Intelligent to Smart Cities”, Intelligent Buildings International, Vol. 3, n. 3: 140-152.
Dvir, R., & Pasher, E. (2004). “Innovation Engines for Knowledge Cities: An innovation Ecology Perspective”, Journal of Knowledge and Management, Vol. 8, n. 5: 16-27.
Ergazakis, K., Metaxiotis, K., & Psarras, J. (2004). “Towards Knowledge Cities: Conceptual Analysis and Success Stories”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 8, n. 5: 5-15.
European Commission – Research & Innovation, (2012).
Smart Cities and Communities. [Online]. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/page/cooperation?callIdentifier=FP7-SMARTCITIES-2013. [Accessed 20th June 2012].
European Smart Cities. (2007, October). Press & Resources:
European Smart Cities. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from
European Smart Cities Web site: http://www.smart-cities.eu/download/smart_cities_final_report.pdf
European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign. (1994). Charter of European Cities and Towns: Towards Sustainability, European Commission - Brussels.
Fricker, A. (1998). “Measuring up to sustainability”, Futures, Vol. 30, n. 4: 367–375.
Gaspartos, A., El-Haram, M. & Horner, M. (2009). “The argument against a reductionist approach for measuring sustainable development performance and the need for a methodological pluralism”, Accounting Forum, Vol. 33, n. 3: 245-256.
Guy, S., & Marvin, S. (1999). “Understanding Sustainable Cities: Competing Urban Futures”, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 6: 268-275.
Hajer, M A. (1996). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process, Oxford University Press - New York.
Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., et al. (2010). “Foundations for Smarter Cities”, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 54, n. 4: 1-16.
Haughton, G. (1997). “Developing Sustainable Urban Development Models”, Cities, Vol. 14, n. 4: 189-195.
Hopwood, B., Mellor, M., & O'Brien, G. (2005). “Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches”, Sustainable Development, Vol. 13: 38-52.
Jabareen, Y. R. (2006). “Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models, and Concepts”, Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 26: 38-52.
Kominos, N. (2006). Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces, Spon Press - London.
Lélé, S. M. (1991). “Sustainable Development: A Critical Review”, World Development, Vol. 19, n. 6: 607-621.
Levett, R. (1998). “Sustainability Indicators: Integrating Quality of Life and Environmental Protection”, Journal of Royal Statistical Society, A161: 291-302.
Li, F., Liu, X., Hu, D., Wang, R., Yang, W., Li, D., et al. (2009). “Measurement Indicators and an Evaluation Approach for Assessing Urban Sustainable Development: A Case Study for China's Jining City”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 90: 134-142.
Mega, V. (1996). “Our City, Our Future: Towards Sustainable Development in European Cities”, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 8, n. 1: 133-154.
Moles. R, Foley, W., Morrissey, J., & O'Regan, B. (2008). “Practical appraisal of sustainable development—Methodologies for Sustainability Measurement at Settlement Level”, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 28, 144-165.
Næs, P. (2001). “Urban Planning and Sustainable Development”, European Planning Studies, Vol. 9, n. 4: 503-524.
Parris, T. M., & Kates, R. W. (2003). “Characterizing and Measuring Sustainable Development”, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 28: 559–586.
Reed, M., Fraser, E. D. G., Morse, S. & Dougill, A. J. (2005). “Integrating Methods for Developing Sustainability Indicators to Facilitate Learning and Action”, Ecology and Society, Vol. 10, n.1: r3.
Robinson, J. (2004). “Squaring the circle? Some thoughts on the idea of sustainable development”, Ecological Economics, Vol. 48: 369-384.
Santinha, G., & Castro, E. A. (2010). “Creating More Intelligent Cities: The Role of ICT in Promoting Territorial Governance”, Journal of Urban Technology, Vol. 17, n. 2: 77-98.
Satterthwaite, D. (1997). “Sustainable Cities or Cities that Contribute to Sustainable Development?”, Urban Studies, Vol. 34: 1667-1691.
Stren, R., White, R., & Whitney, J. (1992). Sustainable Cities. Urbanization and the Environment in International Perspective, Westview Press - Oxford.
Tanguay, G. A., Rajaonson, J., Lefebvre, J. F., & Lanoie, P. (2010). “Measuring the sustainability of cities: An analysis of the use of local indicators”, Ecological Indicators, Vol. 10: 407-418.
United Nations. (2012, June 22). Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Devlopment. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from Un Rio+20 web site: http://www.uncsd2012.org/thefuturewewant.html
Wallbaum, H., Krnak, S., & Teloh, R. (2011). “Prioritizing Sustainability Criteria in Urban Planning Processes: Methodology Application”, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 137, n. 1: 20-28.
Copyright (c) 2014 Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)