The spatial dimension of cycle logistics
Cycle logistics is emerging as a promising alternative in urban freight transport. Compared to fossil fuelled vans, the use of cycles for delivering goods within urban areas offers advantages in terms of environmental friendliness, economic efficiency, flexibility, and liveability of urban neighbourhood. At the same time, cycle logistics has to face limits in terms of weight and volume of goods that can be delivered, distances that can be covered, and spatial urban structures that can be served. This latter issue has till now received less attention in the scientific literature: it is generally recognized that cycle logistics performs at its best in inner urban areas, but no systematic study has been realized to identify specific spatial requisites for the effectiveness of cycle logistics. This paper provides a brief review of the main issues that emerge from the literature over cycle logistics, and contributes to stimulate the debate over the spatial dimension of cycle logistics: it presents a classification of cycle logistics schemes, on the basis of their integration with other urban logistic facilities and of the spatial structure of delivery operations. A three-level classification is proposed, depending on the type of goods consolidation: only distribution without consolidation, consolidation in a fixed urban consolidation centre, or consolidation in a mobile depot; for each level, operational examples and case studies are provided. This systematizing typology could support both public and private operators in decisions about the organization of cycle logistics facilities, such as the location of urban consolidation centres or the composition of cycle fleets.
Allen, J., Browne, M., Woodburn, A., & Leonardi, J. (2012). The role of urban consolidation centres in sustainable freight transport. Transport Reviews, 32(4), 473-490. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2012.688074.
Archdeacon, K. (2011). Parcel service uses streetcars for deliveries. Retrieved from http://www.sustainablecitiesnet.com/models/parcel-service-uses-streetcars-for-deliveries.
Arvidsson, N., & Browne, M. (2013). A review of the success and failure of tram systems to carry urban freight: the implications for a low emission intermodal solution using electric vehicles on trams. European Transport Trasporti Europei, 54, paper n° 5. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10077/8871.
Bektaş, T., Crainic, T. G., & von Woensel, T. (2015). From managing urban freight to smart city logistic networks. Retrieved from https://www.cirrelt.ca/DocumentsTravail/CIRRELT-2015-17.pdf.
Browne, M., Allen, J., & Leonardi, J. (2011). Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central London. IATSS Research, 35(1), 1-6. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2011.06.002.
Browne, M., Allen, J., Nemoto, T., Patier, D., & Visser, J. (2012). Reducing social and environmental impacts of urban freight transport: A review of some major cities. Procedia -
Social and Behavioral Sciences, 39, 19-33. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.088.
Brüning, M., Abdolrahimi, B, & Schönewolf, W. (2014). New logistics concept for urban courier services. Paper presented at the Transport Research Arena, April 14-17, Paris, France. Retrieved from http://tra2014.traconference.eu/papers/pdfs/TRA2014_Fpaper_18118.pdf.
Chiffi, C., & Galli, G. (2015). A guide to effective strategies for introducing and supporting Cyclelogistics in urban areas. Retrieved from http://www.cyclelogistics.eu/docs/119/CLA-D2_1-Guide_to_effective_strategies_for_cyclelogistics.pdf.
Choubassi, C. (2015). An assessment of cargo cycles in varying urban contexts. Thesis for the Master of science in engineering, University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved from https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/31772/CHOUBASSI-THESIS-2015.pdf?sequence=1.
Commission of the European Communities. (2007). Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban
mobility. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52007DC0551.
Commission of the European Communities. (2011). White Paper: Roadmap to a single European transport Aarea. Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system. Retrieved from
Crainic, T. G., & Montreuil, B. (2015). Physical Interned enabled interconnected city logistics.
Retrieved from https://www.cirrelt.ca/DocumentsTravail/CIRRELT-2015-13.pdf.
Dablanc, L. (2011). Urban logistics practices – Paris Case Study. Retrieved from http://18.104.22.168/DotNetNuke/Portals/Turblog/DocumentosPublicos/CaseStudies/TURBLO G_D3.1ParisFV.pdf.
Dampier, A., & Marinov, M. (2015). A study of the feasibility and potential implementation of metro-based freight transportation in Newcastle upon Tyne. Urban Rail Transit, 1(3), 164-182. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40864-015-0024-7.
Diziain, D., Taniguchi, E., & Dablanc, L. (2014). Urban logistics by rail and waterways in France and Japan. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 125, 159-170. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1464.
Ducret, R., & Delaître, L. (2013). Parcel delivery and urban logistics changes in urban courier, express and parcel services: the French case. Paper presented at the 13th World Conference on
Transport Research, July 15-18, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Eltis (n.d.). Integrating Passenger. Rail & Cycle Logistics. Retrieved from http://www.eltis.org/sites/eltis/files/case-studies/documents/integrating_passenger_rail_cycle_logistics_low_res_2.pdf
European Commission (2015). Urban mobility. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/ transport/themes/urban/urban_mobility/index_en.htm.
Faccio, M., & Gamberi, M. (2015). New City Logistics Paradigm: From the “Last Mile” to the “Last 50 Miles” Sustainable Distribution. Sustainability, 7(11), 14873-14894. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su71114873.
Geroliminis, N., & Daganzo, C. F. (2005). A review of green logistics schemes used in cities around
the world. Retrieved from http://www.its.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/publications/UCB/2005/VWP/UCB-ITS-VWP-2005-5.pdf.
Gevaers, R., Van de Voorde, E., & Vanelslander, T. (2014). Cost modelling and simulation of last-mile characteristics in an innovative B2C supply chain environment with implications on urban areas and cities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 125, 398-411. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1483.
Goldman, T., & Gorham, R. (2006). Sustainable urban transport: Four innovative directions. Technology in society, 28(1), 261-273. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.10.007.
Gruber, J., Ehrler, V., & Lenz, B. (2013). Technical potential and user requirements for the implementation of electric cargo bikes in courier logistics services. Paper presented at the 13th
World Conference on Transport Research, July 15-18, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Gruber, J., & Kihm, A. (2015). Reject or embrace? Messengers and electric cargo bikes. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 900-910. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.02.042.
Gruber, J., Kihm, A., & Lenz, B. (2014). A new vehicle for urban freight? An ex-ante evaluation of electric cargo bikes in courier services. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 11, 53-62. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2014.03.004.
Heitz, A. (2015). Paris, urban laboratory for urban logistics. Retrieved from https://www.metrans.org/sites/default/files/MF%2015-2%201c_Paris%20Urban%20Laboratory%20Final%20Report_12232015.pdf.
Janjevic, M., & Ndiaye, A. B. (2014). Inland waterways transport for city logistics: a review of experiences and the role of local public authorities. In C. A. Brebbia (ed.), Urban Transport XX (pp. 279-290). Southampton: WIT press.
Jorna, R., & Mallens, M. (2013). Current situation analysis. Retrieved from http://www.pro-e-bike.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/D.2.1.MOB_EN_2013-11-13.pdf.
Kikuta, J., Itoa, T., Tomiyamab, I., Yamamotoc, S., & Yamada, T. (2012). New subway-integrated city logistics system. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 39, 476-489. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.123.
Koning, M., & Conway, A. (2014). Biking for goods is good: An Assessment of CO2 savings in Paris. Retrieved from https://www.metrans.org/sites/default/files/research-project/MF%2014-3%202b_Biking%20for%20Goods_Final%20Report_121115_New.pdf.
Leonardi, J., Browne, M., & Allen, J. (2012). Before-after assessment of a logistics trial with clean urban freight vehicles: A case study in London. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 39, 146-157. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.097.
Lenz, B., & Riehle, E. (2013). Bikes for urban freight? Experience in Europe. Transportation Research Record, 2379, 39-45. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2379-05.
Lia, F., Nocerino, R., Bresciani, C., Colorni, A., & Luè, A. (2014), Promotion of E-bikes for delivery of goods in European urban areas: an Italian case study. Paper presented at the Transport Research Arena, April 14-17, Paris, France.
Maes, J., Sys, C., & Vanelslander, T. (2015). City logistics by water: Good practices and scope for expansion. In C. Ocampo-Martinez, & R.R. Negenborn (eds.), Transport of water versus transport over water. Exploring the dynamic interplay of transport and water (pp. 413-438). Heidelberg: Springer. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16133-4_21.
Maes, J., & Vanelslander, T. (2012). The use of bicycle messengers in the logistics chain, concepts further revised. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 39, 409-423. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.118.
Masson, R., Trentini, A., Lehuédé, F., Malhéné, N., Péton, O, & Tlahig, H. (2015). Optimization of a city logistics transportation system with mixed passengers and goods. EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, 1-29. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13676-015-0085-5.
Akyelken, N. (2011). Green logistics: improving the environmental sustainability of logistics. Transport Reviews, 31(4), 547-548. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2010.537101.
Melo, S., Baptista, P., & Costa, Á. (2014). Comparing the use of small sized electric vehicles with diesel vans on city logistics. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 111, 1265-1274. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.728.
Menge, J., & Hebes, P. (2015). Analysis about the measures at the end point of the delivery chain to reduce emissions. Retrieved from http://www.cyclelogistics.eu/docs/119/CLA-D2_4-Analysis_end_point_delivery_chain-Final.pdf.
Reiter, K., & Wrighton, S. (2014). A set of updated IEE Common performance indicators including their baseline and assumptions for extrapolation. Retrieved from http://www.cyclelogistics.eu/docs/111/CycleLogistics_Baseline_Study_external.pdf
Russo, F., & Comi, A. (2010). A classification of city logistics measures and connected impacts.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 6355-6365. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.04.044.
Russo, F., & Comi, A. (2016). Urban Freight Transport Planning towards Green Goals: Synthetic Environmental Evidence from Tested Results. Sustainability,8 (4), 381. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su804038.
Sacher, W. (2015). Go! Express & logistics. Paper presented at the 2nd European Cycle Logistics Federation Conference, October 15-17, Donostia San Sebastian, Spain.
Schliwa, G., Armitage, R., Aziz, S., Evans, J., & Rhoades, J. (2015). Sustainable city logistics.
Making cargo cycles viable for urban freight transport. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 15, 50-57. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2015.02.001.
Sładkowski, A., Dantas, R., Micu, C., Sekar, G., Arena, A., & Singhania, V. (2014). Urban freight distribution: council warehouses & freight by rail. Transport problems, 9, special edition, 29-43.
Stevenson, R. (2009), In Amsterdam, packages travel via canals, bicycles. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-dhl-amsterdam-boat-idUSTRE56E2TE20090715.
Transport for London (2009). Cycle freight in London: A scoping study. Retrieved from http://8freight.com/cmsimages/cycle-as-freight-may-2009.pdf.
Trentini, A., & Mahléné, N. (2010). Toward a shared urban transport system ensuring passengers & goods cohabitation. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 3(2). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/165.
van Duin, J. H. R., Quak, H., & Muñuzuri, J. (2010). New challenges for urban consolidation centres: A case study in The Hague. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 6177-6188. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.04.029.
Van Duin, J. H. R., Tavasszy, L. A., & Quak, H. J. (2013). Towards E (lectric)-urban freight: first promising steps in the electronic vehicle revolution. European Transport-Trasporti Europei, 54, 2013.
Verlinde, S., Macharis, C., Milan, L., & Kin, B. (2014). Does a mobile depot make urban deliveries faster, more sustainable and more economically viable: results of a pilot test in Brussels. Transportation Research Procedia, 4, 361-373. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2014.11.027.
Wrighton, S. (2014). CycleLogistics final public report. Retrieved from http://cyclelogistics.eu/docs/111/D6_9_FPR_Cyclelogistics_print_single_pages_final.pdf.
Wrighton, S., & Reiter, K. (2016). CycleLogistics – Moving Europe Forward!. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 950-958. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.02.046.
Wygonik, E., & Goodchild, A. (2011). Evaluating CO2 emissions, cost, and service quality trade-offs in an urban delivery system case study. Iatss Research, 35(1), 7-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2011.05.001.
Zacharias, J., & Zhang, B. (2015). Local distribution and collection for environmental and social sustainability–tricycles in central Beijing. Journal of Transport Geography, 49, 9-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.10.003.
Copyright (c) 2016 Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)