Cover Image

Expectation management at the local scale: Legal failure of public participation for large urban planning projects

Thomas Hartmann, Fennie van Straalen, Tejo Spit

Abstract


The complex nature of large urban planning projects often results in delays or budget overruns. One of the causes is conflicts of interests between stakeholders. Recent planning failures in projects, due to limited public participation, sparked debates to increase citizen participation in formal planning procedures. This paper investigates how planning law supports public participation in large planning projects that cross municipal borders. The juridical analysis of German and Dutch codified law is based on four elements: literal content, institutional positioning, historical context, and teleological meaning of a legal text. The paper furthermore distinguishes four rationales for participation in planning: support,legitimization, improving plan quality, and education. The analysis shows that these rationales cannot be comprehensively regulated by codified law. Law can enhance the legitimate character of participation, but currently lacks the ability to organize support, improvement of planning, and education at the regional planning level.

Keywords


Participation; planning law; regional planning; Germany; the Netherlands

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albrechts, L. (2004). Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31, 743–758. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1068/b3065

Arnstein, S.R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. AIP Journal, 35(4), 216–224. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225

Battis, U. (2007). BauGB - Erster Abschnitt. Allgemeine Vorschriften: Beteiligung der Öffentlichkeit. In U. Battis, M. Krautzberger, & R.-P. Löhr (Eds.), Baugesetzbuch – Kommentar. Version 86. (1–21). München: C.H. Beck.

Bergäuser, K., & Berghäuser, M. (2009). E-Partizipation und frühzeitige Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung in der Bauleitplanung. NVwZ, (12), 766–769.

Braam, W. (1999). Stadtplanung: Aufgabenbereiche, Planungsmethodik, Rechtsgrundlagen (3rd ed.). Düsseldorf: Werner-Verlag.

Brownill, S., & Carpenter, J. (2007a). Increasing participation in planning: Emergent experiences of the reformed planning system in England. Planning Practice and Research, 22(4), 619–634. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701770134

Brownill, S., & Carpenter, J. (2007b). Participation and planning: Dichotomies, rationalities and strategies for power. TPR, 78(4), 401–428. doi:https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.78.4.2

Campbell, S. (1996). Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities?: Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369608975696

Donders, M., Hartmann, T., & Kokx, A. (2014). E-Participation in Urban Planning: Getting and Keeping Citizens Involved. International Journal of E-Planning Research, 3(2), 54–69. doi:https://doi.org/10.4018/ijepr.2014040104

Dreijerink, L., Kruize, H., & van Kamp, I. (2008). Burgerparticipatie in beleidsvorming: Resultaten van een verkennende literatuurreview. RIVM Briefrapport: 830950003/2008: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM).

Durner, W. (2011). Möglichkeiten der Verbesserung förmlicher Verwaltungsverfahren am Beispiel der Planfeststellung. ZUR, (7-8), 354–363.

Dziomba, M., & Matuschewski, A. (2007). Grossprojekte in der Stadtentwicklung: Konfliktbereiche und Erfolgsfaktoren. DisP, 171(4), 5–11. doi: 10.1080/02513625.2007.10556992

Edelenbos, J. (2000). Proces in vorm: Procesbegeleiding van interactieve beleidsvorming over lokale ruimtelijke projecten. Utrecht: LEMMA.

Engberg, J. (2002). Legal Meaning Assumptions: what are the consequences for legal interpretation and legal translation? International Journal for the Semantics of Law, 15(4), 375–388.

Enserink, B., & Monnikhof, R.A. (2003). Information Management for Public Participation in Co-design Processes: Evaluation of a Dutch Example. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 46(3), 315–344. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/0964056032000096910

Directive 2003/35/EC providing for public participation in respect of the drawing up of certain plans and programmes relating to the environment Official Journal of the European Union 17, European Parliament and European Council 2003.

Fagence, M. (1977). Citizen participation in planning (1st ed.). Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0080203973

Hartmann, T. (2012). Rationaliteiten in ruimtelijke planvorming: Een theoretisch perspectief op participatiemanagement vanuit de burger. Bestuurswetenschappen, 66(6), 36–51.

Hartmann, T., & Needham, B. (2012). Introduction: Why reconsider planning by law and property rights? In T. Hartmann & B. Needham (Eds.), Planning by law and property rights reconsidered (pp. 1–23). Farnham: Ashgate.

Hartmann, T., & Spit, T. (2015). Towards an integrated water management - Comparing German and Dutch water law from a spatial planning perspective. International Journal of Water Governance, 3(2), 59–78. doi:https://doi.org/10.7564/14-IJWG68

Hartmann, T., & Spit, T. (2016). Legitimizing differentiated flood protection levels – Consequences of the European flood risk management plan. Environmental Science & Policy, 55, 361–367. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.08.013

Healey, P. (1996). The communicative turn in planning theory and its implications for spatial strategy formation. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 23, 217–234.

Healey, P. (2002). On Creating the ‘City’ as a Collective Resource. Urban Studies, 39(10), 1777–1792. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098022000002957

Healey, P. (2003). Collaborative planning in perspective. Planning Theory, 2(2), 101–123. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/14730952030022002

Huxley, M. (2000). The Limits to Communicative Planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research, (19), 369–377. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0739456X0001900406

Ibert, O. (2007). Megaprojekte und Partizipation: Konflikte zwischen handlungsorientierter und diskursiver Rationalität in der Stadtentwicklungsplanung. DisP, 171(4), 50–63. doi: 10.1080/02513625.2007.10556

Ifsen, O. (2004). Die „klassische“ Methodenlehre bei Savigny. Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, (1), 231–250.

Innes, J. E. & Booher, D. E. (2000). Public participation in planning: New Strategies for the 21st Century. Available at:http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3r34r38h

Krautzberger, M. (2007). BauGB - Erster Abschnitt. Allgemeine Vorschriften: Aufgabe, Begriff und Grundsätze der Bauleitplanung. In U. Battis, M. Krautzberger, & R.-P. Löhr (Eds.), Baugesetzbuch – Kommentar. Version 86. (pp. 1–131). München: C.H. Beck.

Leino, H., & Laine, M. (2011). Do matters of concern matter? Bringing issues back to participation. Planning Theory, 11(1), 1–15. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1473095211417595

Needham, B., te Raa, P., Spit, T., & Zwanikken, T. H. (2000). Kwaliteit, winst en risico: De invloed van het Vinex-onderhandelingsmodel op de programmatische ontwikkeling van Vinex-locaties. Nijmegen, Utrecht.

Needham, B. (2006). Planning, law, and economics: The rules we make for using land. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Pahl-Weber, E., & Henckel, D. (Eds.). (2008). The planning system and planning terms in Germany: A glossary. Hannover: Acad. for Spatial Research and Planning. ISBN 9783888382338

Ritter, E.H. (Ed.). (2005). Handwörterbuch der Raumordnung (4., neu bearb). Hannover: ARL.

Selle, K. (2011). Große Projekte - nach Stuttgart: Herausforderungen der politischen Kultur. RaumPlanung, 2011(156|157), 127–132.

Silver, H., Scott, A., & Kazepov, Y. (2010). Participation in Urban Contention and Deliberation. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(3), 453–477. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00963.x

Spit, T., & Bertolini, L. (1998). Cities on rails: The redevelopment of railway station areas. London, New York: E&FN Spon. ISBN 0419227601

Stelmach, J., & Brożek, B. (2011). Methods of legal reasoning. Dordrecht, London: Springer.

Stierand, R. (1993). Neuorientierung in der Planungstheorie? RaumPlanung, (61), 141–147.

Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal (2011) 32660 nr. 39.

van Straalen, F.M., Janssen-Jansen, L.B., & van den Brink, A. (2014). Delivering planning objectives through regional-based land-use planning and land policy instruments: An assessment of recent experiences in the Dutch provinces. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(3), 567–584. doi:https://doi.org/10.1068/c1277

Wegener, M. (2012). Government or governance? The challenge of planning for sustainability in the Ruhr. In T. Hartmann & B. Needham (Eds.), Planning by law and property rights reconsidered (pp. 157–168). Farnham: Ashgate.

Wesselink, A., Paavola, J., Fritsch, O., & Renn, O. (2011). Rationales for public participation in environmental policy and governance: Practitioners' perspectives. Environment and Planning A: , 43, 2688–2704. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1068/a44161

Wolsink, M. (2003). Reshaping the Dutch planning system: a learning process? Environment and Planning A: , 35(4), 705–723. Available at:http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1068/a35173

Yang, Kaifeng, & Pandey, Sanjay K. (2011). Further Dissecting the Black Box of Citizen Participation: When Does Citizen Involvement Lead to Good Outcomes? Public Administration Review, 71(6), 880–892. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02417.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/5369

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This site uses cookies to help deliver services. By using this site, you agree to the use of cookies.
More info.
ok


Direttore responsabile: Rocco Papa | print ISSN 1970-9889 | on line ISSN 1970-9870 | © 2008 | Registrazione: Cancelleria del Tribunale di Napoli, n° 6, 29/01/2008 | Rivista realizzata con Open Journal System e pubblicata dal Centro di Ateneo per le Biblioteche dell'Università di Napoli Federico II.