Measuring Urban Resilience to Natural Hazards
AbstractNatural disaster is an undeniable fact, and preparing to cope with and respond to it is an essential necessity. A resilient city can survive after a traumatic blow to its physical infrastructure, its economy, or its social fabric. Lahijan City, like other cities, requires resiliency measurement. Research tries to survey the degree of resilience of Lahijan encountering natural hazards. The research method is descriptive-analytic; the descriptive method is used to develop theories and literature, and analytical method for the identification of causal relationships and correlations. The performed analyses arebased on the combination of inferential statistics techniques such as one sample t-test and the Delphi technique. The outcome revealed that Lahijan is totally in the low spectrum in terms of resilience (5 > 2.72 > 1), with theoretical median of three, which itself is the result of climate change, urbanization, and globalization. Support and strengthening of community-based activities, disaster risk reduction, and capacity increase of institutional adaptability can assist Lahijan residents to encounter to the human hazards, natural hazards, and increasing risks resulting from change.
Ainuddin, S., Routray, J.K. (2012). Community resilience framework for an earthquake prone area in Baluchistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2, 25-36. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2012.07.003
Amaratunga, D. & Haigh, R. (2011). Post-disaster reconstruction of the built environment: Rebuilding for resilience. London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Asprone, D., Latora, V., Manfredi, G., Nicosia, V., & Cavallaro, M.(2013). City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters (No. arXiv:1302.3263). Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1302.3263.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Beall, J, & Piron, L. (2005). DFID Social Exclusion Review. London: LSE. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jo_Beall/publication/283729778_Department_for_International_Development_Social_Exclusion_Review/links/5645e54c08ae9f9c13e71c0d.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Brugmann, J.(2012). Financing the resilient city. Environment and Urbanization, 24(1), 215-232. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247812437130
Campanella, T. (2006). Urban resilience and the recovery of New Orleans. Journal of the American planning association, 72(2), 141-146. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360608976734
Campanella, T., & Godschalk, D. (2012). Resilience. In: R. Crane and R. Weber, The Oxford handbook of urban planning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J.M. & Abel, N. (2001). From metaphor to measurement: Resilience of what to what? Ecosystems, 4(8), 765-781. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9
Chelleri, L. (2012). From the «Resilient City» to Urban Resilience. A review essay on understanding and integrating the resilience perspective for urban systems. Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica, 58(2), 287-306. doi:https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.175
Christopherson, S., Michie, J. & Tyler, P. (2010). Regional resilience: theoretical and empirical Perspectives. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3(1), 3–10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsq004
Coaffee, J. (2013). Rescaling and responsibilising the politics of urban resilience: From national security to local place-making. Politics, 33(4), 240-252. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9256.12011
Ministry of roads and housing. (2008). Comprehensive Plan of Lahijan (Iran).
Cutter, SL., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans & Tate, E. (2008). Community and regional resilience: Perspectives from hazards disasters and emergency management (CARRI Research Report 1). Retrieved from http://www.resilientus.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/FINAL_CUTTER_9-25-08_1223482309.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Da Silva, J., Kernaghan, S. & Luque, A. (2012). A systems approach to meeting the challenges of urban climate change. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 4(2), 125-145. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/19463138.2012.718279
Davis, M. (2006). Planets of slums. New York: Verso.
Desouza, K.C. & Flanery, T.H. (2013). Designing, planning, and managing resilient cities: A conceptual framework. Cities, 35, 89-99. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2013.06.003
de Falco, S. (2018). Geographic determinism Vs urban resilience: italian scenario analysis. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 11(1), 65-88. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/5370
Forgette, R. & Boening, M.V. (2009). Measuring and Modeling Community Resilience:SERP and DyME. Retrived from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Van_Boening/publication/228490028_Measuring_and_Modeling_Community_Resilience_SERP_and_DyME/links/544042f50cf2be1758cfff12/Measuring-and-Modeling-Community-Resilience-SERP-and-DyME.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Godschalk, D. R. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: creating resilient cities. Natural hazards review, 4(3), 136-143. doi:https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2003)4:3(136)
Gunderson, L. (2008). Comparing ecological and human community resilience. White Paper to Community Resilience Initiative, Southeastern Regional Research Initiative, Oak Ridge National Lab, TN. Who Are We. Retrieved from http://www.resilientus.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Final_Gunderson_1-12-09_1231774754.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Hamilton, J.D. (2009). Causes and consequences of the oil shock of 2007-08 (No. w15002). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w15002. Last access July 2018.
Henstra, D. (2012). Toward the climate-resilient city: extreme weather and urban climate adaptation policies in two Canadian provinces. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 14(2), 175-194. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2012.665215
Jalali, T., Fallahi, A, & Golkar, K. (2012). Resilience reconstruction after the earthquake of 2003 in Bam from urban design perspective (Unpublished Master's thesis). Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.
Keck, M. & Sakdapolrak, P.(2013). What is social resilience? Lessons learned and ways forward. ERDKUNDE: Scientific Geography, 67(1), 5-19. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23595352
Lucini, B. (2013). Social capital and sociological resilience in megacities context. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 4(1), 58-71. doi:https://doi.org/10.1108/17595901311299008
Maguire, B. & Hagan, P.(2007). Disasters and communities: understanding social resilience. Australian journal of emergency management, 22(2), 16-19.
Mayunga, J. S. (2007). Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: a capital-based approach. Summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience building, 1, 16. Retrieved from https://www.u-cursos.cl/usuario/3b514b53bcb4025aaf9a6781047e4a66/mi_blog/r/11._Joseph_S._Mayunga.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Oxfam (2005). The tsunami’s impact on women (Briefing Note). Oxfam International. Retrieved from https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/the-tsunamis-impact-on-women-115038. Last access July 2018.
Papa, R. (2012). Editorial Preface: Resilient city. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 5(2), 5-6. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/1156
Papa, R. (2018). Editorial Preface: TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment 1 (2018). Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 11(1), 5-6. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/5539
Rezaei, M. R. & Rafieyan, M. (2012). Conceptualization of resilience and its indicators in community-based disaster management (CBDM). Teacher of humanities - space planning and design, 15(4), 37-49.
Romero-Lankao, P., & Gnatz, D.M. (2013). Exploring urban transformations in Latin America. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(3), 358-367. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.008
Rose, A. (2004). Defining and measuring economic resilience to disasters. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(4), 307-314. doi:https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560410556528
Sapirstein (2006). Social resilience: The forgotten element in disaster reduction. Retrieved from http://theicor.org/art/present/art/ARSR0008.pdf. Last access July 2018.
Thornbush, M., Golubchikov, O. & Bouzarovski, S. (2013). Sustainable cities targeted by combined mitigation–adaptation efforts for future-proofing. Sustainable Cities and Society, 9, 1-9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2013.01.003
Tobin, G.(1999). Sustainability and community resilience: The holy grail of hazards planning. Global environmental changes, 9(1), 13-25. doi:https://doi.org/10.3763/ehaz.1999.0103
Wagner, I. & Breil, P. (2013). The role of ecohydrology in creating more resilient cities. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 13(2), 113-134. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecohyd.2013.06.002
Copyright (c) 2018 Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)