The Assessment of land use/land covers changes linked to oil and gas exploration

Developments under changing climatic conditions in Lokichar Basin, Turkana County

Keywords: land cover, land use change, oil, gas, exploration, vegetation, climate change


Understanding land use/land cover changes(LU/LC) linked to oil and gas exploration under changing climatic conditions in South Lokichar Basin is crucial.This knowledge will  inform policy makers on appropriate sustainable vegetation cover management  strategies for the sake of  pastrolism practiced in the area.The LU/LC changes were assessed using multi-spatial and multi-temporal remotely sensed imageries acquired through Landsat 5TM and Landsat 8OLI/TIRS by use of ArcGIS.The study assessed medium resolution spatial imageries acquired for the area in both rainy and dry seasons,before oil and gas exploration developments begun in South Lokichar Basin between 2006-2011 and after commencement between 2012-2017.The study established that the average area in hectares under vegetation cover had declined since oil and gas exploration developments begun.A one sample t-test statistics indicated that the area under forest,shrubland and grassland cover had significantly reduced at 90% confidence interval with a p-value of 0.072,0.074 and 0.061 respectively.The study established a decline in NDVI from 1 to 0.433 for the rainy season and 0.411 to 0.122 for the dry season between 2006 and 2017 with a p-value of 0.009 <0.05 on paired t-test implying a significant change on vegetation cover.Sustainable management of vegetation cover is important to safeguard livestock forage.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

David Mugendi Kariuki, Kenyatta University

He is currently a finalist PhD student in Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya in the School of Environmental studies and the correspondent author for the article. In addition to academic Research he works as an associate lecturer in Mt. Kenya University and the University of Embu.

Mireri Caleb, School of Environmental Studies, Department of Environmental Planning and Management,Kenyatta University,Nairobi,Kenya

He is an associate professor in the School of Environmental Studies,Department of Environmental Planning and Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya who coupled as the senior supervisor for the PhD.

Kibwage Jacob, Department of Community Development and Environmental Management, The Cooperative University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

He is an Associate professor in the Department of Community Development and Environmental Management, The Cooperative University of Kenya Nairobi ,Kenya.

Daniel Oyoo, School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Gas and Petroleum Engineering Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya

He is a senior Lecturer in the School of Engineering and Technology,Department of Gas and Petroleum Engineering   Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya.


Adamu B., Tansey ,K., Evin T. & Booker O.(2018) Remote sensing for detection and monitoring of vegetation affected by oil spills, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 39:11, 3628-3645, DOI: 10. 1080/01431161. 2018. 1448483

Adamu,B.,Tansey,K. & Ogutu B. (2015).“Using Vegetation Spectral Indices to Detect Oil Pollution in the Niger Delta. ” Remote Sensing Letters 6 (2): 145–154. doi:10. 1080/ 2150704x. 2015. 1015656.

African Development Bank(2018).African Economic Outlook 2018, Outlook

Al-haleem, A. A., Awadh, S. M., & Saeed, E. A. (2013).Environmental Impact from Drilling and Production of oil Activities :Sources and Recommended Solutions. International Conference on Iraq Oil Studies, Irani Jourll Science., 11–12

Anis, Mohamad Danish & Siddiqui, Tauseef. (2015). Issues Impacting Sustainability in the Oil and Gas Industry. Journal of Management and Sustainability. 5. 115. 10.5539/jms.v5n4p115.

Bagherzadeh,A.,Hoseini, A.V. & Totmaj, L.H.(2020).The effects of climate change on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the Northeast of Iran.Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 6, 671–683 (2020).

Bhatt U S, Walker D A, Raynolds M K. (2013). Recent declines in warming and vegetation greening trends over Pan-Arctic Tundra. Remote Sensing, 5(9): 4229–4254

Chavunduka, C.M., & Bromley, D.W. (2011). Climate, carbon, civil war and flexible boundaries: Sudan's contested landscape.Journal of land use policy volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 907-916

Elkin, K. (2012, June 07). Site Restoration and PCSMs. Pennslyvania:Oil and Gas Management Office.

Elum, Z.A., Mopipi, K. & Henri-Ukoha, A.(2016). Oil exploitation and its socioeconomic effects on the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 12880–12889

Eliza M. Johannes, Leo C. Zulu & Ezekiel Kalipeni (2015) Oil discovery in Turkana County, Kenya: a source of conflict or development?, African Geographical Review, 34:2, 142-164, DOI: 10.1080/19376812.2014.884466

Frost, G. V., & Epstein, H. E. (2014). Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s. Global Change Biology, 20(4), 1264–1277.

Galderisi, A. (2014).Climate Change Adaptation. Challenges and Opportunities for a Smart Urban Growth. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 7(1), 43-68.

Garman, S.L (2018).A Simulation Framework for Assessing Physical and Wildlife Impacts of Oil and Gas Development Scenarios in Southwestern Wyoming. Environ Model Assess 23, 39–56.

Hassan, Aminu. (2013).Review of the Global Oil And Gas Industry: A Concise Journey From Ancient Time to Modern World. Petroleum Technology Development Journal. 3. 123-141.

Huang,K.-C. and Huang, T.C. C. (2014) IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 18 012106

Ibrahim, Eiman & Siti-Nabiha, A.K. & Jalaludin, Dayana & Abdalla, Yousif. (2013). Community engagement of petroleum company: Getting the right fit in Sudan. Int. J. of Human Resources Development and Management. 13. 169 - 177. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2013.055416.

Julius, O. , Bayode, A. , & Adewunmi, E. A.(2011). Environmental implications of oil and gas exploration and exploitation in the coastal region of Ondo State ,Nigeria :A regional planning appraisal, 4(March), 110–121.

Kadafa, B, , & Ayuba, A. (2012. )Environmental Effects of Oil Exploration and production in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment&EarthSciences,12. Retrievedfromhttps://globaljournals. org/GJSFR_Volume12/2-Environmental-Effects-of-Oil-Exploration. pd

Kaspersen, P. S. ,Fensholt, R. , & Drews, M. (2015). Using Landsat vegetation indices to estimate impervious surface fractions for European cities. Remote Sensing, 7(6), 8224–8249. https://doi. org

Khosravi, H., Azareh, A., Dameneh,H.E (2017),Assessing the effects of the climate change on land cover changes in different time periods. Arab J Geosci 10, 93

Klostermann, J., van de Sandt, K., Harley, M. (2018).Towards a framework to assess, compare and develop monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 23, 187–209.

Kuch,S., Bavumiragira& Jean P. (2019).Impacts of crude oil exploration and production on environment and its implications on human health: South Sudan Review. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 9p8836. 10. 29322/IJSRP. 9. 04. 2019. p8836.

Kumpula T, Forbes B C, Stammler F & Meschtyb N (2012) Dynamics of a coupled system: multi-resolution remote sensing in assessing social-ecological responses during 25 years of gas field development in Arctic RussiaRemote Sensing 4 1046–68

Kumpula T , Forbes B C, Stammler F & Meschtyb N(2011).Land use and land cover change in Arctic Russia: ecological and social implications of industrial developmentGlob. Environ. Change 21 550–62

Larry A. Swatuk, Bejoy K. Thomas, Lars Wirkus, Florian Krampe, Luis Paulo Batista da Silva. (2020) The‘boomerang effect’:insights for improved climate action. Climate and Development 0:0, pages 1-7

Larsen J N, Anisimov O A, Constable A, Hollowed A B, Maynard N, Prestrud P, Prowse T D & Stone J M R (2014).Polar regions Climate Change:Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Regional Aspects, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change ed V R Barroset al(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 1567–612

Lokeris, H. P. , Eng, H. , & Muloni, I. (2014).Development ( Memd ) the Republic of Uganda the Oil & Gas Sector in Uganda Progress of Implementation of the National Oil, (10),2013–2016.

MacKenzie C. A., Fuda, R. K., Ryan, S. J., & Hartter, J. (2017). Drilling through Conservation Policy: Oil Exploration in Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda. Conservation and Society, 15(3), 322–333. Retrieved from

Manshad, A.K., Dastgerdi, M.E., Ali, J.A.(2019). Economic and productivity evaluation of different horizontal drilling scenarios:Middle East oil fields as case study. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol 9, 2449–2460 (2019).

Mierzejowska A., Żogała M. (2018).The characteristics of geographical information systems in terms of their current use. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 39 p. 101–108. DOI: 10.2478/jwld-2018-0064.

Oduro Appiah, J., Opio, C. & Donnelly, S. (2020).Measuring forest change patterns from oil and gas land use dynamics in northeastern British Columbia, 1975 to 2017. Environ Monit Assess 192, ).

Ogwu, F.A. (2011).Challenges of Oil and Gas Pipeline Network and the role of Physical Planners in Nigeria Friday Adejoh Ogwu School of Architecture &Planning

Opiyo,F.Wasonga,O.,Nyangito,M.,Schilling,J.,&Munang, R. (2015). Drought Adaptation and Coping Strategies Among the Turkana Pastoralists of Northern Kenya. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,6(3),295–309.

Pande, C.B., Moharir, K.N., Khadri, S.F.R. et al.(2018) Study of land use classification in an arid region using multispectral satellite images. ApplWater Sci 8, 123

Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., Cristiano, M., Di Francesco, I., & Tulisi, A. (2015). Less Smart More City. Tema - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 8(2), 159-182.

Republic of Kenya;Ministry of Energy and Petroleum.(2015).National Energy and Petroleum Policy, 1–130. Retrievedfrom

Republic of Kenya. (2016,2017).Kenya Oil Blocks and Their Sizes. Ministry of Energy and Petroleum. Government Printers,Nairobi.

Republic of Kenya.(2017).Ministry of Environment and Forestry,Kenya Meteoroligical Department.Data accessed://

Salleh, M. & Haron, N. & Shafri,H. & Abdullah, A.A & Ahmad, N. (2019). The Important of Horizontal Directional Drilling Standard Technical Requirements. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 357. 012029. 10.1088/1755-1315/357/1/012029

Salvati, L., Gargiulo Morelli, V., Weijnen, M., van Bueren, E., Wenzler, I., & De Reuver, M. (2013). Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 6(1), 73-86.

Schilling, J., Locham, R., Weinzierl, T., Vivekananda, J., & Scheffran, J. (2015). The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in northwest Kenya. Earth System Dynamics, 6(2), 703–717.

Seki,H. & Shirima,D. &Courtney M.C. & Marchant, R. & Munishi, P.(2017).The impact of land use and land cover change on biodiversity within and adjacent to Kibasira Swamp in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 56. 10. 1111/aje. 12488

Sokoła-Szewioła V.,Żogała M.(2016).The adoption of the ArcGIS system to support the analyses of the influence of the mining tremors on the building objects.Management Systems in Production Engineering. No 4 (24) p. 228–236.

Sonter LJ, Moran CJ, Barrett DJ, Soares-Filho BS (2014) The processes of land usechange in mining regions, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.03.08

Stanley, N. & Tota-Maharaj, K. & Eke, P. E. & Hills,C. (2016). Environmental and Economic Impacts of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production in Developing Countries. International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment. 1.64-73. 10.11648/j.ijeee.20160103.13.

Takeuchi Y, Soda R, Diway B, Kuda Ta, Nakagawa M, Nagamasu H, et al. (2017) Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0187273.

Vandenberg, D. (2015).Horizontal-well production allocation in the international context: A reasonable formula for allocation derived from texas law. Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 8(3), 216–231. https://doi. org.

Wang, L., Xue, X., Zhao, Z., & Wang, Z. (2018). The Impacts of Transportation Infrastructure on Sustainable Development: Emerging Trends and Challenges. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(6), 1172.

Wang T. ,& Gong, J. (2009).Forest Reconstruction Using Point Cloud Data of Airborne LIDAR. 2009 International Conference on Management and Service Science, 1–4. https://doi. org.

Yin H.,Udelhoven T., Fensholt R.., Pflugmacher D.& Hostert P.(2012).How normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trends from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and vegetation (SPOT VGT) time series differ in agricultural areas: An inner mongolian case study. RemoteSensing,4(11),https://doi. org/

Yin F., Deng X., .Jin Q., Yuan Y., and Zhao C.(2014) “The impacts of climate change and human activities on grassland productivity in Qinghai Province, China,” Frontiers of Earth Science, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 93–103

Yu, Qin & Epstein, H. & Engstrom, Ryan & Shiklomanov, Nikolay & Streletskiy, Dmitry. (2015). Land cover and land use changes in the oil and gas regions of Northwestern Siberia under changing climatic conditions. Environmental Research Letters. 10. 124020. 10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124020..

Zhao,Xu.(2019).New Horizontal Well Completion Technologies and Research Prospects in China. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1176. 042069. 10.1088/1742-6596/1176/4/042069.

Zhou, Z., Tao, Y., Li, S. & Ding, W. (2013).Hydrocarbon potential in the key basins in the East Coast of Africa. Petroleum Exploration and Development (English Edition), 40, 582–591

How to Cite
Kariuki, D. M., Caleb, M., Jacob, K., & Oyoo, D. (2020). The Assessment of land use/land covers changes linked to oil and gas exploration. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(2), 169-190.