Metropolitan Cities supporting local adaptation processes. The case of the Metropolitan City of Venice

Keywords: Climate-proof planning, Metropolitan City, Broad Area Governance, Climate Change

Abstract

Cities have a fundamental role in the adaptation and mitigation process to climate change. Even though cities will be the main subject of climate change impacts, they can propose solutions and build alternative scenarios. The difficulties that municipalities may encounter in their adaptation processes concern the lack of planning skills, technical knowledge, and human resources. To face these challenges Italian Metropolitan Cities can play a fundamental role in helping municipalities to plan and coordinate their efforts. The process in the Venetian territory has lasted many years and it has led to the awareness that local adaptation policies need to be addressed with broader support. The Metropolitan City of Venice has constructed a methodology for the planning of climatic adaptation. This methodology has been developed thanks to various plans and projects. These projects acted to increase the coordination between bodies, to define a broad area vision, to help municipalities to implement local actions. The role played by CMVe intends to direct public policies towards adaptation and mitigation in a structural way and with broad area governance. The process activated could be replicable in other Italian Metropolitan Cities in the approach and the result even if adapted to local needs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Filippo Magni, Department of Architecture and Arts University, Iuav of Venice

Urban planner, Phd, in Planning and Public Policies for the Territory and Master in Estudios Territorials i de la poblaciò at the Universitat Autonoma di Barcellona (UAB). Researcher (RTD-A) in Urban Planning and Technology (ICAR 20) at the Department of Culture of the Project of the IUAV University of Venice. Since 2011 he has been actively collaborating with several research groups working on issues related to territorial resilience, including Planning & Climate Change Lab, of which he is a senior member, the Young Planner Ectp-ceu network, and since September 2019, the Eni Enrico Mattei Foundation, where he is an associate researcher. His research focuses on the need to redesign urban planning policies and tools to introduce new approaches to climate adaptation, both ex-ante and structural.

Giovanni Litt, Department of Architecture and Arts , University Iuav of Venice

Junior Architect, Urban and Environmental Planner with attention to climate-proof and resilient planning, Phd student. Researcher at the Department of Culture of the Project of the IUAV University of Venice in the Planning & Climate Change LAB. Over the years he has developed a multi-level, metabolic, and multidisciplinary approach to planning, able to reconcile actions and strategies to adapt to Climate Change with Territorial Government and participatory policies. He is specialized in urban resilience related to climate change and social and economic crises in support of Public Administrations, analyzing and assessing shocks and stress, and finding urban and environmental innovation methods and practices with a view to prevention and spatial and community adaptation. Facilitator in participatory processes for the co-planning of interventions of regeneration of public spaces activating local contexts and actors. Assistant to the didactics in different courses of Architecture and Planning.Junior Architect, Urban and Environmental Planner with attention to climate-proof and resilient planning, Phd student. Researcher at the Department of Culture of the Project of the IUAV University of Venice in the Planning & Climate Change LAB. Over the years he has developed a multi-level, metabolic, and multidisciplinary approach to planning, able to reconcile actions and strategies to adapt to Climate Change with Territorial Government and participatory policies. He is specialized in urban resilience related to climate change and social and economic crises in support of Public Administrations, analyzing and assessing shocks and stress, and finding urban and environmental innovation methods and practices with a view to prevention and spatial and community adaptation. Facilitator in participatory processes for the co-planning of interventions of regeneration of public spaces activating local contexts and actors. Assistant to the didactics in different courses of Architecture and Planning.

Giovanni Carraretto, Department of Architecture and Arts , University Iuav of Venice

Architect, Graduate in Architecture Construction and Conservation and Architecture and Innovation, at the University Iuav of Venice. He studied at the University of Technology in Vienna. Phd student in Architecture, City and Design, Culture of the Made in Italy Project, Research Infrastructure Integral Design Environment (IR.IDE). Researcher at the Department of Culture of the Project of the IUAV University of Venice in the Planning & Climate Change LAB. Qualified as teaching assistant (ICAR/14 and ICAR/21). He works on issues related to territorial resilience, Internal Areas, and Local Development. Qualified and registered in the Association of Architects, Planners, Paesaggists, and Conservatories of Venice. He works as a freelancer in an architecture and engineering studio in the Province of Venice and deals with architectural and urban design in the public and private sector.

References

Adami, L., Tubino, M., Ragazzi, M., Conti, F. & Rada, E.C. (2020). Local actions for reducing global greenhouse gas footprint: 10 years of covenant of mayors initiative. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 15(2), 247-252. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijsdp.150216

Bezzi, A., Boccali, C., Calligaris, C., Colucci, R.R., Cucchi, F., Finocchiaro, F., Fontolan G., Martinucci D., Pillon S., Turpaud P., Zavagno E., Zini, L. & Toffolon G., (Eds.). (2015). Impatti dei cambiamenti climatici sul territorio fisico regionale. Studio sullo stato di fatto concernente la conoscenza d'insieme del territorio fisico regionale per la valutazione degli impatti dovuti ai cambiamenti climatici. Retrieved from: http://www.regione.fvg.it/rafvg/export/sites/default/RAFVG/ambiente-territorio/geologia/FOGLIA22/allegati/Impatti_dei_cambiamenti_climatici_sul_territorio_fisico_regionale.pdf

Bockel, L. (2009). How to Mainstream Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation into Agriculture Policies, FAO. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ex_act/pdf/ppt/Climate_Change_and_Agricultural_Policies_ppt.pdf

Boggero, G. (2016). The establishment of metropolitan cities in Italy: an advance or a setback for Italian regionalism?. Perspectives on Federalism, 8 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pof-2016-0014

Burton, D., & Dredge, D. (2007, November). Framing climate: Implications for local government policy response capacity. 3rd State of Australian Cities National Conference, 28-30 November 2007, Adelaide, Australia.

Crivello, S. & Staricco, L. (2017). Institutionalizing Metropolitan cities in Italy. Success and limits of a centralistic, simplifying approach. Urban Research & Practice, 10 (2), 228-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2017.1307001

Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change. (2021). Scenari climatici per l’Italia. Retrieved from: www.cmcc.it/it/scenari-climatici-per-litalia

European Environment Agency (2016). Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/climate-change-impacts-and-vulnerability-2016

Fritzsche, K., Schneiderbauer, S., Bubeck, P., Kienberger, S., Buth, M., Zebisch, M . & Kahlenborn, W. (2014). The Vulnerability Sourcebook: Concept and Guidelines for Standardised Vulnerability Assessments; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH: Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Retrieved from: https://www.adelphi.de/de/publikation/vulnerability-sourcebook-concept-and-guidelines-standardised-vulnerability-assessments

Gaudioso D., Giordano F. & Taurino E. (Eds.). (2014). Qualità dell’ambiente Urbano X Rapporto Edizione 2014 Focus su Le Città e la Sfida dei Cambiamenti Climatici, ISPRA – Istituto Superiore per la protezione e la ricerca ambientale. Retrieved from: https://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files/pubblicazioni/statoambiente/FocussuLecittelasfidadeicambiamenticlimatici.pdf

Guerzoni F. & Tagliapietra D. (Eds.) (2006). Atlante della Laguna. Venezia tra Terra e Mare. Venice: Marsilio.

Jabareen, Y. (2013). Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk. Cities, 31, 220-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2012.05.004

Keskitalo, E. C. H. (2010). Introduction–adaptation to climate change in Europe: theoretical framework and study design. In Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: Multi-level governance of climate change. Springer International Publishing AG, Dordrecht, 1-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9325-7_1

Laukkonen, J., Blanco, P. K., Lenhart, J., Keiner, M., Cavric, B. & Kinuthia-Njenga, C. (2009). Combining climate change adaptation and mitigation measures at the local level. Habitat international, 33 (3), 287-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2008.10.003

Lewin K. (1946). Action Research and Minority Problems. Social Issues. 2(4), 34-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1946.tb02295.x

Magni, F. (2019). Climate Proof Planning: L’adattamento in Italia tra Sperimentazioni e Innovazioni. Milan: Franco Angeli.

Magni F., Litt G., Musco F. & Carraretto G. (2020a). Guidelines for Mainstreaming in Groups of Municipalities (Action C3); LIFE Master Adapt. Italy. Retrieved from: https://masteradapt.eu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2020/07 /C3_LG_Unioni%20di%20Comuni.pdf

Magni F., Litt G., Musco F., Carraretto G. & Maragno D. (2020b). Smart Tools: Interactive Map and Common DSS (Action C3.2); LIFE Master Adapt,. Retrieved from: https://www.masteradapt.eu/strumenti/

Magni, F., Musco, F., Litt, G. & Carraretto, G. (2020c). The Mainstreaming of NBS in the SECAP of San Donà di Piave: The LIFE Master Adapt Methodology. Sustainability, 12 (23), 10080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310080

Maragno, D., Musco, F. & Domenico, P. (2017). La Gestione del Rischio di Ondate di Calore e Allagamenti in Ambiente Urbano: Un Modello Applicativo. In Atti della XX Conferenza Nazionale SIU - Società Italiana degli Urbanisti. Urbanistica e/è Azione Pubblica. La Responsabilità della Proposta. 131–140.

Maragno, D. (2018). Ict, Resilienza e Pianificazione Urbanistica. Per Adattare le Città al Clima. Milan: FrancoAngeli.

Maragno, D., dall’Omo, C.F., Pozzer, G. & Musco, F. (2021). Multi-Risk Climate Mapping for the Adaptation of the Venice Metropolitan Area. Sustainability, 13, 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031334

Marson, A. (2006). Il progetto di territorio nella città metropolitana. Firenze: Alinea Editrice.

Mazzeo, G. (2021). Le città metropolitane alla sfida dell’efficienza e della sostenibilità. Ruolo e forma del piano territoriale metropolitano. BDC. Bollettino Del Centro Calza Bini, 21 (1), 127-140. https://doi.org/10.6092/2284-4732/7992

Mercalli L. (2011). Prepariamoci. Milan: Chiarelettere edizioni.

Miranda Sara, L. & Baud, I.S.A. (2014). Knowledge-building in adaptation management: concertación processes in transforming Lima water and climate change governance. Environment and Urbanization, 26 (2), 505-524. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247814539231

Molinaro W. (2019). La sfida dell'adattamento nella pianificazione territoriale: Il ruolo delle Città Metropolitane. The challenge of adaptation in spatial planning: The role of the Metropolitan Cities. [Master's Degree Thesis, Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Pianificazione Territoriale, Urbanistica E Paesaggistico-Ambientale]. Retrieved from: https://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/11479/

Musco, F., Maragno, D., Litt, G. & Businaro, G. (2020). Beni Comuni e città climate proof: l’approccio LUCI. BDC. Bollettino Del Centro Calza Bini, 20(1), 51-69. https://doi.org/10.6092/2284-4732/7544

Musco F., Morello E., et al. (2019). Linee guida e proposte operative della Città metropolitana di Milano: Azioni pilota su quattro Zone Omogenee. Retrieved from: https://www.cittametropolitana.mi.it/ambiente/Progetti_ambiente/Progetti-conclusi/cariplo1.html

Musco, F. (Eds.) (2016). Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario. Charm: Springer International Publishing AG.

Musco, F., Zanchini, E. (Eds.). (2014). Il Clima Cambia le Città: Strategie di Adattamento e Mitigazione nella Pianificazione Urbanistica. Milan: Franco Angeli.

Musco, F. (2008). Cambiamenti Climatici, politiche di adattamento e mitigazione: una prospettiva urbana. Cambiamenti climatici, politiche di adattamento e mitigazione. Archivio di Studi Urbani e Regionali 93/2008, 5-38. https://doi.org/10.3280/ASUR2008-093001

Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare (2017). PNACC — Piano Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti Climatici. Retrieved from: https://www.minambiente.it/sites/default/files/archivio/allegati/clima/pnacc.pdf

Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare. (2014). SNACC — Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti Climatici. Retrieved from: https://www.minambiente.it/notizie/strategia-nazionale-di-adattamento-ai-cambiamenti-climatici-0

Piperata G. (2018). La Città metropolitana nel sistema dei poteri pubblici secondo il giurista. Urban@it - Centro nazionale di studi per le politiche urbane. Retrieved from: https://www.urbanit.it/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/03-la-citta-metropolitana-nel-sistema-dei-poteri-pubblici-secondo-il-giurista-piperata.pdf

Pablo-Romero, M. D. P., Pozo-Barajas, R. & Sánchez-Braza, A. (2018). Analyzing the effects of the benchmark local initiatives of Covenant of Mayors signatories. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 159-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.124

Rauken T., Mydske P. K. & Winsvold M. (2015). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation at the local level. Local Environment, 20(4), 408-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2014.880412

REN21 Secretariat (2021), Renewables in Cities 2021 Global Status Report. Retrieved from: https://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/REC_2021_full-report_en.pdf

Romero Lankao, P. & Zwickel, T. (2014). A conceptual framework for an urban areas typology to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation. Urban Clim, 14, 116–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2015.07.001

Satterthwaite, D. (2007). Adapting to climate change in urban areas: the possibilities and constraints in low-and middle-income nations (Vol. 1) (IIED working paper 10549). International Institute for Environment and Development. https://pubs.iied.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/10549IIED.pdf

Shmelev, S.E. (2019). Sustainable cities reimagined: multidimensional assessment and smart solutions (1st ed.). London: Routledge.

Sistema Nazionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente (2019). Rapporto “Consumo di Suolo, Dinamiche Territoriali e Servizi Ecosistemici”. Retrieved from: https://www.snpambiente.it/2019/09/17/consumo-di-suolo-dinamiche-territoriali-e-servizi-ecosistemici-edizione-2019/

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf

UNFCCC (2008a). Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change. Final draft report. Retrieved from: https://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/methodologies_for /vulnerability_and_adaptation/ application/pdf/200502_compendium_methods_tools_2005.pdf

UNFCCC (2008b). Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its fourth session, held in Poznan from 1 to 12 December 2008, Poznan, Poland. Retrieved from: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/docs/2008/cmp4/eng/11.pdf

Urban Agenda for the EU (2016). “Pact of Amsterdam” Agreed at the Informal Meeting of EU Ministers Responsible for Urban Matters on 30 May 2016 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/ regional_policy/sources/policy/themes/urban-development/agenda/pact-of-amsterdam.pdf

Venice Province (2011). Protocollo di Intesa tra la Provincia di Venezia e i Comuni del territorio sull’attuazione della politica energetica europea al 2020, per la riduzione delle emissioni di CO2, l’efficienza energetica e l’utilizzo delle fonti rinnovabili. Retrieved from: https://www.cittametropolitana.ve.it/albo-pretorio/documenti-download.html/18666

Published
2021-08-31
How to Cite
Magni, F., Litt, G., & Carraretto, G. (2021). Metropolitan Cities supporting local adaptation processes. The case of the Metropolitan City of Venice. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 14(2), 125-144. https://doi.org/10.6093/1970-9870/7948